Big shout out to the following libraries for select content and inspiration in this guide:
This guide is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Fake news is not news you disagree with.
"Fake news" is "fabricated information that mimics news media content in form but not in organizational process or intent. Fake-news outlets, in turn, lack the news media's editorial norms and processes for ensuring the accuracy and credibility of information. Fake news overlaps with other information disorders, such as misinformation (false or misleading information) and disinformation (false information that is purposely spread to deceive people)."
Lazer, D. M., Baum, M. A., Benkler, Y., Berinsky, A. J., Greenhill, K. M., Menczer, F., ... & Schudson, M. (2018). The science of fake news. Science, 359(6380), 1094-1096.
There are many types of "Fake News." Claire Wardle of First Draft, an organization that supports academics and others addressing challenges regarding truth in the digital age, created the following infographic detailing 7 types of mis- and disinformation that sit on a scale, one that loosely measures intended deception.
OpenSources, a resource aimed at assessing web information headed by Melissa Zimdars of Merrimack College, classifies sites in the following ways:
Mike Caulfield, a primary proponent of evolving media literacy, is currently the director of blended and networked learning at Washington State University Vancouver, and head of the Digital Polarization Initiative of the American Democracy Project, a multi-school pilot to change the way that online media literacy is taught. View his talk below about how do better when teaching web literacy.