The American Psychological Association (APA) Citation Style has become a very popular one with fields of study focused on using current resources.
The basic rule for APA citing within your writing, also known as in-text citing, is to include the author(s) last name and date. This is called the Author-Date convention.
|Type of Citation||Narrative Citation||Parenthetical Citation|
|One work by one author||Walker (2007)||(Walker, 2007)|
|One work by two authors||Walker and Allen (2004)||(Walker & Allen, 2004)|
|One work by three or more authors||Bradley et al. (1999)||(Bradley et al., 1999)|
|Groups as authors (readily identified through abbreviation)||National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003), then all following mentions in the narrative would be NIMH (2003)||(NIMH, 2003)|
|Groups as authors (no abbreviation)||University of Pittsburgh (2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)|
Source: American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, D.C.: Author.
APA Style uses parenthetical, author-date citations. The APA style discourages direct quotes and stresses the writer should try to describe other resources in their own words.
When you do need to quote, be sure to add the page or paragraph number to the citation after you note the date of the work. See examples below:
Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss, 2007, pp. 7-8).
Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss, 2007, para. 5).
Here are a few examples directly from the 7th edition of the APA:
Journal Article: (Author Last Name, Initials, etc.). (YEAR). Journal article title: Only capitalize first words and proper nouns. Journal Title, volume (issue if available), page numbers. DOI if available
Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000185
Book: (Author Last Name, Initials, etc.). (YEAR). Book title: Only capitalize first words and proper nouns. Publisher.
Rabinowitz, F. E. (2019). Deepening group psychotherapy with men: Stories and insights for the journey. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000132-000
Webpage: (Author Last Name, Initials OR Organization Name). (YEAR). Webpage name. Website name (if available). URL
Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain. OER Commons.https://www.oercommons.org/authoring/53029-nursing-clinical-brain/view
Newspaper/Magazine Article: (Author Last Name, Initials OR Organization Name). (Year, Month, Day). Article title: Only capitalize first words and proper nouns. Journal Title, volume, page numbers or URL
Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can we get better at forgetting? The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html
Click here for more examples: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples#tweet