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Interlibrary Loan

How to Read a Citation

Book Citations 

Book citations will always have a publisher, place of publication, and year of publication.

The Voices of African American Women: The Use of Narrative and Authorial Voice in the Works of Harriet Jacobs, Zora Neale Hurston, and Alice Walker Johnson, Yvonne New York, NY : Peter Lang 1998


This citation is for a chapter in a scholarly book. It has a publisher, place of publication and a year of publication, but it also includes two clues which indicate it is a chapter: "In:" and then the name of the book, "ed." for editor (rather than an author). In this case it also includes the pages of the chapter (87-94) and the total number of pages in the book.

Return from the Implants: Cyberpunk's Schizophrenic Future. In: Kraus, Elisabeth (ed. and introd.); 259 pp.;Simulacrum America: The USA and the Popular Media; Camden House, Rochester, NY: 87-94

TIP: To find this in the library type in the title of the book or the name of the editor, last name first into the library catalog.


Periodical articles (like newspapers, magazines, and scholarly journals) will have volume and/or issue numbers and usually a day, month, or season of publication along with the year. Also, they will indicate the page numbers of the article.

Lancaster, Kurt "Neil Gaiman's 'A Midsummer Night's Dream': Shakespeare Integrated into Popular Culture" Journal of American & Comparative Cultures 23, no. 3 (2000 Fall): p. 69-77

Newspapers will often include the number of words in the article rather than the number of pages (since many news articles are fairly short). Page numbers will also often include the section (A, B, C, D, etc.) of the paper too (3E in this case).

Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN), October 8, 2003, Wednesday, Metro Edition, VARIETY; BOOKS MIDWEEK; Pg. 3E, 680 words, ILLUSTRATED BOOKS; Neil Gaiman brings Morpheus back, Eric Hanson; Staff Writer

TIP: To find this in the catalog, search for Journal of American & Comparative Cultures or Star Tribune NOT the title of the article.


This is a citation to an abstract (short summary) of a dissertation in Dissertation Abstracts.

Rivers of Blood: A Comparative Study of Government Massacres. Uekert, Brenda Kay. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 1995, 55, 8, Feb, 2579-A

TIP: Requesting an abstract through  Interlibrary Loan will only get you the summary of the dissertation, and not the disseration itself!

This is the citation for a complete dissertation/theses. Note the name of the university and the lack of a place of publication or publisher.

Terrorism vs democracy : a study in the effect terrorism has on the political systems it attempts to influence by Michel Marc Desloover. University of Louisville, 1986.

TIP: Because dissertations are usually only published in one place, it can be difficult to get them through Interlibrary Loan.  However, don't be discouraged from submitting an request- we can always try!


Government documents will have the name of a federal government agency as the publisher or they will indicate that they have been published by the Government Printing Office (GPO).

The Animal Welfare Act : how it protects your dog and cat. [Washington, D.C.?] : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, 1986

National Research Council. 1996. Use of Reclaimed Water and Sludge in Food Crop Production. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

TIP: If a document has a URL; it can be found online. Many government documents are no longer published in a print format.


Scholarly conference papers are sometimes published in the conference’s proceedings.

The Symbolic Boundary of Tattoo. AU:Marchetti, Silvia SO: International Sociological Association, Brisbane, Australia (ISA), 2002

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