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Citation Guides

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

An annotated bibliography means that there is a short paragraph (about 150 words) providing information about each source after its entry in the bibliography. 

For each entry, provide a short paragraph that:

  1. evaluates the authority and expertise of the author
  2. the purpose of the author
  3. an explanation of the relevance and value of the source to your chosen topic

Ask your professor which citation style they prefer. 

Ask yourself:

  1. Do I need to change my keywords? Broaden or narrow the topic?
  2. What is this source’s main point, and how will it contribute to my argument?
  3. Is this source appropriate for my subject and for the assignment?
  4. How will the source contribute to my argument?
  5. Does the author answer his/her hypothesis in the article, or is a weakness or omission exposed?

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

APA Annotated Bibliograhy

APA now has guidelines for an annotated bibliography. Annotations will be a new paragraph, indented 0.5" from the left.

Delmas, P. M. (2017). Using VoiceThread to create community in online learning. TechTrends, 61, 595–602.

This study investigated how VoiceThread could impact online student persistence. It used the Community of Inquiry framework as a guidepost for applying the technology, most specifically by leveraging social presence. The study sought to answer the question “does VoiceThread help create community for online learners?” Researchers surveyed 39 participants in master’s and doctoral programs that were either fully online or blended. Based on the data, the researchers concluded that VoiceThread, as perceived by students who have used it, can promote social presence in online learning communities by making students feel more connected to other students and the instructor. Three positive themes for VoiceThread related to student to student interaction included hearing a voice, hearing voice inflection versus text, and learning about peers’ professional/educational experience. While positive trends were highlighted succinctly, there was little discussion of negative trends, which challenged validity, and a small sample size (N=39) makes it difficult to generalize.

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